San Diego lags behind most of its national competitors in terms of affordability, as measured by cost of living as a share of per-capita personal income, according to a study released Sept. 1.

Only Portland, Ore., ranked lower than San Diego on a list of 10 metropolitans the city competes with for business and talent, the Bank of America-sponsored study by the San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce found.

The top city on the ranking, Raleigh, N.C., was pegged at 45 percent more affordable than San Diego.

Housing costs, increasingly viewed as San Diego’s biggest weakness in the area of employee recruitment and retention, again stood out in the chamber’s report.

It said 42 percent of local homeowners spend 30 percent or more of their income on housing, with 30 percent generally considered the appropriate share housing should represent. The study found 57 percent of local renters spend more than that share of their earnings on rent.

The report also found income taxation for San Diegans ranked second-highest among the competing metros, and the area’s property taxes put it at third-highest among the 10 cities.